A brief sketch of Urama grammer with special consideration by by Janessa L. Brown.

By by Janessa L. Brown.

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Extra info for A brief sketch of Urama grammer with special consideration of particles marking agency, aspect, and modality

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PH13) (1 person from context) The above examples show the first person as the subject. Below see example (49) where the first person is the object. 49) Kaukua nu-ro mo muramurai aro'o gimoi hinita p-en-ema'a-ti immediately then PST-1CR-give-ITER oropoi'oi ri. finish SUBCL 3S-AG 1S medicine ma that sickness ACT Immediately he admitted me to hospital in order to treat the paralysis. ) (My Life Story, Aisi 14) While Clifton (1995:55) claims that this prefix occurs in Kope whenever there is a first person core argument, this is not always the case in Urama as seen in (50).

46 However, a counterargument to this analysis is apparent when looking at clauses that involve a deity and a human, or a deity and an animal. We can expect that the language would treat deities at least as high on an animacy scale as a human. When a deity (for example, God or Lord Jehovah in this corpus) is present, it always has the agent marker. This is unexpected under this analysis. If the deity and a lower animate participant occur in one sentence, as in (102) and (103) below, I would expect the deity to be the clear agent with no need then to disambiguate.

So even if the clause has a transitive verb, if one of the participants is only represented by verbal morphology, or even more abstractly by context, the transitive clause is much less transitive than a clause with the same verb with both participants overtly realized in the clause. If the participant is so defocused that it is not represented by a noun phrase or pronoun in a clause, of course there would be no agentive marker in the clause. That accounts for why there is no ro when there is no overt subject, but we could still expect to see the marker on an overt subject when there was no overt object.

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