A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby

By Michael Allaby

This dictionary of earth sciences has been revised and up to date and includes over 6000 entries, together with planetary technology, distant sensing, statistics, and series stratigraphy, and significant updating in paleontology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences

Example text

These can carry considerable *loads, although slow *failure of the rock will lessen the support. 2. Soil anchors may be used in sediments where the material is strong enough to provide sufficient reaction to the load. Holes must be drilled and the anchor installed and grouted quickly, as soil around the hole may crumble and reduce the strength of the bond. ancient biomolecule Any molecule produced by an organism during its lifetime which persists post mortem. e. the type of organism or evolutionary relationships.

Antarctic Ocean (Southern Ocean) The ocean surrounding Antarctica. It extends northwards to about 40° S latitude, the limit of the northward drift of ice from the Antarctic region, where there is a marked change in water temperature and *salinity. 8 °C to 10 °C). Antarctic Plate A present-day major lithospheric plate that extends beyond the Antarctic continent to the surrounding *constructive plate margins. Antarctic polar current A surface current which flows in a westward direction around Antarctica under the influence of easterly winds blowing off the ice cap.

Angle of internal friction (friction angle) A measure of the ability of a unit of rock or soil to withstand a *shear stress. It is the angle (φ), measured between the normal force (N) and resultant force (R), that is attained when failure just occurs in response to a shearing stress (S). Its tangent (S/N) is the coefficient of sliding friction. Its value is determined experimentally. angle of reflection The angle between a reflected ray or wave and the normal to a reflecting surface. angle of refraction The angle between a refracted ray or wave and the normal to a refracting surface.

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