A Manual of Petrology by Frederic Phillip Mennell

By Frederic Phillip Mennell

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In combination, must form at least twoFree silica, in the form of thirds of the earth's crust. quartz, is very abundant in rocks of every description, being present in all the more acid igneous and metamorphic types, and in the clastic stratified series, of which it freSilica, free and quently forms nearly the whole bulk. occurs in fibrous or confused aggregates, often spherulitic. I. 53). for quartz, but negative. Chalcedony never occurs as an original constituent of igneous rocks, but is frequently formed in cavities and ; ; ; vesicles.

In some metamorphic rocks it forms clear granules, showing no sign of cleavage traces, and can only be distinguished from quartz by its biaxial interference figure in convergent and from albite by its chemical behaviour. It has light, two perfect cleavages parallel respectively to the basal plane and the clinopinacoid, and occasionally shows an imperfect one parallel to the orthopinacoid. The extinction is parallel to the cleavage traces intersect at right angles. The two when these latter individuals of a Carlsbad twin may extinguish straight, and therefore simultaneously, but they never otherwise give symmetrical extinctions.

Fused with potash or soda it forms a soluble silicate. Always transparent and colourless in slices. zoned by inclusions sometimes occurs ally ; CORRODED QUARTZ PHENOCRYSTS. FIG. 13. 2,i6o-foOt level, Kimberley Mine, Kimberley, X crystals. 30 Occasionin skeleton In Rhyolite, Cape Colony. Showing quartz and groundmass alike diam. traversed by a rude system of Perlitic cracks. Is usually allotriomorphic, product of crystallization from a fused being the magma ; last when A- MANUAL OF PETROLOGY 31 and granophyres, it occurs in pyramids, occasionally combined with the prism, though prism faces are always subordinate.

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