Advances in Mutagenesis Research by V. I. Ivanov, N. A. Liapunova (auth.), Professor Dr. Günter

By V. I. Ivanov, N. A. Liapunova (auth.), Professor Dr. Günter Obe (eds.)

Utilized genetic examine, genetic toxicology and mutation examine examine the mutagenicity and cancerogenicity of chemical compounds and different brokers. everlasting mutation in genes and chromosomes, may be prompted through aplethora of brokers, together with ionizing and nonionizing radiations, chemical substances, and viruses. one of the features discused via Advances in Mutagenesis study are (1) the certainty of the molecular mechanisms resulting in mutations, and (2) the prevention of a inconsiderate advent of mutagenic brokers into the surroundings. Contents: Nikolay W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky (1900-1981): An Essay on his existence and clinical Achievements. - Arylnitrenium Ions and the Genotoxic efficiency of fragrant Amines and Nitro Compounds. - Analysisof Mutagenicity and Chemical constitution in quite a few sequence of similar Compounds. - Formation of 8-Hydroxyguanine through Oxidative DNA harm, its fix and its Mutagenic results. - Exploring Genetic and Non-Genetic Relationships: The Induction of Micronuclei. - Mechanisms of brought on Mutagenesis by way of Ultraviolet mild in Escherichia coli. - Polytene Chromosomes in Mutagenesis. Three-Way Differential Stainingof Chromosomes for the id of SCEs in keeping with cellphone Cycle: basics and purposes. - The Mammalian Centromere: Centromere Separation, Kinetochore Proteins and Aneuploidy. - Chorionic Villi research. - ExploringGenetic and Non-Genetic Relationships: The Induction of Micronuclei.

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Mutagenic activity is the size of the aromatic ring system: while the monocyclic parent compound phenylazide (azidobenzene) and the monocyclic 2,6-dimethyl derivative are not mutagenic and the trimethyl-phenylazides, trichloro-phenylazide and 4, 4'-diazidodiphenylmethane (with two nonconjugated aromatic rings) are weakly mutagenic, the dicyclic azides derived from naphthalene, quinoline, and diphenyl, the tricyclic azides derived from fluorene, and the tetracyclic azides derived from chrysene and pyrene are increasingly mutagenic.

All these factors can variously influence the concentration of the ultimate mutagen at the DNA target. However, they appear to be minor factors which do not outweigh the arylnitrenium ion as the major determinant. Another facet of the similarities discussed above is the uniformity of the structure-activity relationships of the azido, nitro, and amino compounds. We have reported previously on the structure-activity relationships in a series of aminoimidazoaromatic and nitroimidazoaromatic compounds (Kaiser et al.

64 2 1 Introduction The interphase of genetics and carcinogenesis has been a field of active investigation ever since the realization that mutagenicity, or more precisely the ability to alter DNA, could be the basis of cancer causation. Indeed, this realization, which ultimately led to the "carcinogens are mutagens" paradigm (Ames et al. 1973), also spawned the field of genetic toxicology. Of course, the "somatic mutation theory of cancer causation" as well as the "electrophilic theory of carcinogenesis" (Miller and Miller 1977) received confirmation by the recognition of the role in carcinogenesis of the activation of proto-oncogenes and the deactivation of suppressor genes by mutagenic mechanisms.

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