By Vernon Cooray (auth.)
This e-book approximately lightning summarizes the essence of physics and results of lightning in a non-technical demeanour and offers an updated description of the phenomenon of lightning in basic language. beginning with the myths relating to lightning, the reader is brought to the mechanism of lightning flashes and their interactions with people, human-made platforms and Earth’s surroundings. lots of the on hand books on lightning are written for the specialists within the box and there's a desire for a ebook that introduces the undergraduate and starting publish graduate scholars to the topic of lightning and prepares them for extra complicated books intended for the specialists. This introductory e-book, that's in response to a sequence of lectures given to undergraduate and postgraduate scholars in electric engineering, is meant to fill this desire. adapted to the desires of college scholars who plan to review electric engineering, meteorology, environmental or easy physics, it's also a worthwhile reference source for laymen who're drawn to understanding extra in this phenomenon.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Lightning
The rest of the charge (À ΔQ + q) is transferred to the ground. The parameters used to define the heights of the charge centers are given in Fig. 15 depicts the electric field change generated by a ground flash. In the calculation, it is assumed that ΔQ ¼ 10 C, h1 ¼ 4 km, h2 ¼ 6 , and h3 ¼ 9 km. Note that, unlike the field change due to a cloud flash, the polarity of the field change remains the same with distance. 13 Electric Field Change Caused by Stepped Leader For simplicity let us consider a bipolar cloud with negative and positive charge centers at heights h2 and h3, with charges À Q and + Q, respectively.
Gallimberti I (1979) The mechanism of the long spark formation. J Phys 40(C7):193–250 14. Rizk F (1989) A model for switching impulse leader inception and breakdown of long air-gaps. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 4(1):596–603 15. Biagi CJ, Uman MA, Hill JD, Jordan DM, Rakov VA, Dwyer J (2010) Observations of stepping mechanisms in a rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash. J Geophys Res 115: D23215. 1029/2010JD014616 16. Mazur V, Ruhnke L, Bondiou-Clergerie A, Lalande P (2000) Computer simulation of a downward negative stepped leader and its interaction with a grounded structure.
15 depicts the electric field change generated by a ground flash. In the calculation, it is assumed that ΔQ ¼ 10 C, h1 ¼ 4 km, h2 ¼ 6 , and h3 ¼ 9 km. Note that, unlike the field change due to a cloud flash, the polarity of the field change remains the same with distance. 13 Electric Field Change Caused by Stepped Leader For simplicity let us consider a bipolar cloud with negative and positive charge centers at heights h2 and h3, with charges À Q and + Q, respectively. At time t ¼ 0 a stepped leader starts moving down from the negative charge center.