An introduction to Wampanoag grammar by by Jessie Little Doe Fermino.

By by Jessie Little Doe Fermino.

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There will also be some changes to certain verb stems depending on the verb stem final. To illustrate this point, we will use the TA verb stem ndw, 'see' (117) TA1) nuntaw, 'I see him' TA2) nuniq, 'he sees me' What has happened here is that in the TA2, the stem final -dw has contracted with the theme sign -uq. The result is -aq (see note). For the purposes of discussing TA2, we will start out with a TA verb stem that will not undergo such change. (118) wach6n TA, 'keep, care for' nuwach6nuq, 'he keeps me' kuwach6nuq, 'he keeps you' nuwachOnuqak, 'they keep me' kuwach6nuqak, 'they keep you' As can be seen in these examples, the order of person, nuwachanuqak, stem, nuwachOnuqak, theme sign, nuwachanuqak and peripheral endings, nuwach&ntuqak, remains the same because the verb ends in a consonant other than -w.

Here -w cannot be present. For example: (59) For verbs which end in -n, this -w is not possible. For example: musukeen AI, 'great' numusukeen, 'I am great' kumusukeen, 'you are great' musukeen, 's/he is great' not *musukeenuw Noosh musukeen 'My father is great' The verb musukeen, since it ends in an -n, cannot have a -w ending; *musukeenuw is not a possible form. Now, consider verbs that end in shwa. (60) ap(u) AI 'stay, sit' nuneechan apuw apunut 'my child is sitting on the bed' Verbs of this type do not end in a long vowel.

Putakh- -um -un ----- -ash putakhumun 'it is hidden' putakhumunash 'they are hidden' As you will recall, the w- of the third person prefix wu- is dropped due to the verb stem being p initial. See example (23) to review this rule. The TI2 (transitive inanimate 2) has one verb final. These verbs have the final -aw. These verbs will pattern themselves the same way in the absolute form. You will recall that the absolute form is for situations when the noun is clearly present in the phrase. For example: (86) ahtaw TI2, 'have, own' nutaht6m mahkusunash 'I have shoes' Here we see that the object (miahkusunash 'shoes') is overtly present in the phrase.

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